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Ad-blocking software - filters that check files and file types against a list to block ads, interstitials, or animated banners (p. 275)
Advertising - promotional placement in a medium (p. 273)
Affiliate marketing programs - include content sites that provide links to commerce sites (p. 270)
Analog signals - waves of energy (p. 93)
Asset records - list the resources owned by a business (p. 74)
Auction site - brings consumers together as buyers and sellers (p. 288)
Auction strategy - adds value by bringing buyers and sellers who dynamically determine a market price online (p. 254)
Audits - traditional media report of audience size based on internal or external examinations (p. 274)

Bandwidth - the amount of digital signals that can travel per second (p 93)
Banner ads - most common method of web advertising (p. 273)
Benefit - advantage gained from a product feature (p. 170)
Bit - each on or off digital signal (p. 93)
Brick and click businesses - businesses that offer both traditional and Internet sales (p. 32)
Brick and mortar stores - traditional retail businesses operating out of buildings where customers come and shop (p. 32)
Broadband - Internet connection where bandwidth is increased through direct digital signals (p. 93)
Brochure sites - designed to communicate a company's products, services, and image to customers (p. 120)
Browser - provides a graphical view of the Web (p. 90)
Budgets - written financial plans for a specific time period (p. 74)
Business case - objective analysis that determines if projected sales and profits justify the estimated expenses of the new product (p. 196)
Business consumers - purchase products for use in the business operation or for resale (p. 166)
Business culture - shared purpose, values, and commitment of the people who work for a company (p. 63)
Business plan - written document that describes the nature of a business, its goals and objectives, and methods for achievement (p. 297)
Business portals - support B-to-B commerce (p. 38)
Business processes - the activities that transform the resources of a business into products and services and deliver them in a way that meets customer expectations (p. 65)
Business-process strategy - designed to obtain efficiencies in the way a particular business activity is performed (p. 247)
Business-support services - activities that support consumer access to and use of Internet resources and digital information (p. 192)
Buttons - small banner ads (p. 273)

Channel captain - channel member who organizes and controls a supply chain (p. 229)
Channel members - organizations that participate in the distribution process (p. 218)
Chief information officer (CIO) - manager responsible for information systems and technology in a business (p. 76)
Click-stream analysis - tracks individual web site use from which visitors link, surfing paths within the sites, and time spent at the site (p. 140)
Click-through rate (CTR) - percentage of people who click through to another site (p. 271)
Communication - the process of transferring a message from a sender to a receiver (p. 114)
Competitive advantage - providing something of value to customers better than the competition or at lower costs over the long term (p. 247)
Computer viruses - software programs that copy and replicate (reproduce) themselves (p. 98)
Consumer behavior - study of how people make decisions about the purchase and use of products and services (p. 169)
Consumer products - products purchased by individuals for final use and consumption (p. 68)
Consumer services - activities that support access to and use of Internet resources and digital information (P. 192)
Controlling - gathering and analyzing information to determine if plans are being accomplished (p. 62)
Cookie - a short code that resides in the user's browser and tells a site who is visiting (p. 271)
Copyright - protects the creator of an original artistic or intellectual work (p. 202)
Corporate portal - an internal web site that provides company information to employees, as well as access to selected web sites such as those of benefit to providers and suppliers (p. 121)
Cost per thousand (CPM) - traditional payment measure used by advertisers (p. 274)
Customer churn - database to help predict which customers are likely to switch to a competitor (p. 148)
Customer service - databases that allow businesses to provide customer service based on the customers' past experience (p. 148)
Customer-relationship management (CRM) - systems combines software and management practices to serve the customer from order to delivery and after-sales support (p. 152)
Custom production - the design and assembly of a new product to meet the unique and specific needs of a customer (p. 68)
Cybercrime - criminal activity on the Internet (p. 97)
Cyberloitering - employees surfing the Web without a specific business purpose (p. 146)
Cybermediaries - companies that facilitate exchanges in an electronic market (p. 223)

Data mining - uses statistical software to organize raw data into information that is useful for managerial decisions, (p. 149)
Decode - interpret a sender's message (p. 114)
Demographics - descriptive characteristics of consumers (p. 163)
Digital communication services - provide management of the technology and procedures that support business and consumer virtual communications (p. 192)
Digital-communication strategy - focuses on organizing the delivery of digital information, products, services, or payments (p. 244)
Digital content - consist of information in digital format including video, audio, text, and graphics (p. 192)
Digital products - includes multimedia entertainment, online information services, published documents, games, music, and videos that are sold and transferred directly over the Internet to the customer (p. 40)
Digital services - services that are sold and performed online, such as banks, stockbrokers, and schools (p. 40)
Digital signals - a series of ons (zeros) and offs (ones) (p. 93)
Digital technology - equipment used by businesses and consumers to develop, store, distribute, and use digital content (p. 192)
Digital watermark - embeds owner/author information into video, audio, and graphics files (p. 205)
Direct channel - distribution channel that involves only the producer and the consumer (p. 217)
Direct marketers - businesses that sell directly to consumers through outlets such as catalogues or direct mail (p. 44)
Direct marketing - databases that identify the prospects most likely to respond to direct marketing efforts (p. 148)
Dissonance - discomfort that arises after a major purchase when alternatives are recommended or dislikes emerge with the choice (p. 171)
Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) - attacks flood a business' web site with so much traffic that legitimate users cannot access the site (p. 98)
Distribution - involves determining the best methods and procedures to allow customers to locate, obtain, and use the products and services of an organization (p. 6)
Distribution channel - organizations and individuals that physically move and transfer ownership of a product from producer to consumer (p. 217)
Domain name - a web site's unique Internet name (pp. 91, 296)
Dynamic pricing - selling prices may fluctuate above or below listed prices (p. 253)

E-commerce - a company's use of the Internet to support or complete business transactions; (pp. 10, 32)
E-commerce facilitator - provides one or more important activities that support the e-commerce strategies of other businesses (p. 289)
E-commerce service provider - manages e-commerce functions for small businesses (p. 34)
E-commerce sites - web sites designed with specific goals geared toward having customers make purchases (p. 120)
E-commerce value chain - views information technology as a part of the overall value chain (p. 249)
Economic espionage - takes place when individuals steal intellectual property (p. 98)
Economic utility - the amount of satisfaction received from using a product or service (p. 16)
E-mail marketing - targeted e-mail messages sent to individuals most likely to purchase the company's product or service (p. 121)
E-marketing - electronic marketing (p. 5)
Emotional decisions - decisions based on feelings, beliefs, and attitudes (p. 166)
Encryption - scrambles data to ensure that information is secure (p. 99)
Encryption software vcopy protection technologies that make it more difficult for Internet users to illegally use programming code or online content (p. 205)
Entrepreneur - a person who organizes, operates, and assumes the risk for a business venture (p. 287)
Environment scanning - a process in which managers regularly review information about competitors and environmental trends (p. 139)
E-retailers - online retailers (p. 43)
Ethical hackers - individuals hired by businesses to check network security (p. 98)
E-tickets - paperless airline tickets (p. 69)
Exchange activities - consist of purchasing and selling as well as providing customer support (p. 218)
Export management company (EMC) - provides (p. 122)
Extranets - securely connects companies with suppliers and partners using Internet protocols (p. 117)

Feature - a specific characteristic pf a product (p. 170)
Final consumers - purchases made by consumers primarily for their own personal consumption (p. 166)
Financing - budgeting for marketing activities, obtaining the necessary funds needed for operations, and providing assistance to customers in purchasing the business's products and services (p. 7)
Firewalls - software programs that block unauthorized computer usage (p. 99)
Focus groups - led by a moderator who collects qualitative data from eight to fifteen individuals who respond to open-ended questions (p. 144)
Fraud detection - databases that can rate the likelihood that a transaction is fraudulent (p. 148)
Fulfillment - online order delivery process (p. 39)
Fulfillment company - offers complete distribution services for other businesses (p. 224)
Fully integrated web site - site through which a customer can complete the entire purchasing transaction online (p. 295)

Hacking - involves the attempt by individuals to break through online security for fun or profit (p. 97)
Heterogeneous - significant differences in the type of service and method of delivery for each customer (p. 190)
Home page - the initial page that a viewer sees on a web site (p. 125)
Homogeneous - services offered in the same way each time a customers orders them (p. 190)
Hot spots - local wireless networks supported by low power radio signals (p. 95)
HTML - HyperText Markup Language - the set of design codes that are used to construct web pages (p. 90)
HTML e-mail - e-mail that can include graphics with text and looks similar to a web page (p. 122)
HTTP - HyperText Transfer Protocols - the instructions that allow hyperlinks to work (p. 90)
Hyperlink - a reference from some point in a document to some point in another document or another place in the same document (p. 90)
Hypermedia - electronic devices that use hyperlinks for the linking of content (p. 115)

Implementing - managers helping employees and others to work effectively to carry out the plans of the business (p. 62)
Impressions - number of viewers (p. 276)
Indirect channel - distribution channel that involves additional businesses between the producer and consumer (p. 217)
Industrial products - products purchased by companies for business use, for integration into other products, or for resale (p. 68)
Information-management activities - help to record, organize, transmit, store, and update the information needed to buy, sell, and distribute products (p. 219)
Infrastructure attacks - occur when individuals interfere with a computer's systems (p. 98)
Infrastructure - the underlying structure that allows information to be transferred via telecommunications (p. 88)
Innovation - a new and unique product, process, or idea (p. 166)
Integrated marketing-communication - strategy brings together multiple media to reach desired goals (p. 266)
Intellectual property - information resulting from creative thinking that is owned by a person or business (pp. 98, 201)
Intelligent shopping agents - software-based search systems that customers use that return product and price information (p. 253)
Interactive marketing - databases that can predict what a web site visitor is most interested in seeing (p. 149)
Intermediaries - companies that participate in a distribution channel to facilitate exchanges between the producer and consumer (p. 223)
Intermittent processing - short production runs to make limited quantities of various products (p.68)
Internet Protocol (IP) - standards used for Internet applications such as e-mail and the World Wide Web (p. 89)
Internet service provider (ISP) - allows an Internet user to "log on" or connect to the Internet (p. 91)
Interstitials - Pop-ups in front of a web page (p. 274)
Intranets - internal web sites set up for businesses to communicate with employees (p. 117)

Just-in-time basis - products are quickly shipped to customers when orders are received (p. 228)

Last mile - the last connection between the Internet and your home or business (p. 94)
Law of demand - relationship between price and purchase decisions (p. 57)
Law of supply - relationship between price and production decisions (p. 57)
Leadership - the ability to influence and motivate people to cooperatively achieve important goals (p. 61)
Lifetime value (LTV) - measure of customer's value that shows that while a few transactions with a customer may not be profitable, over the long term that customer may be well worth retaining (p. 150)

Mailing list - allows e-mail to be sent to all members of a group at once (p. 123)
Management - the process of setting direction and accomplishing the goals of an organization through the effective use of people and other resources (p. 61)
Manufacturers - like producers, manufacturers are businesses that convert raw materials into consumable products (p. 9)
Many-to-many communication model - a hypermedia model that is a meeting place where anyone can communicate with anyone else (p. 115)
Market-basket analysis - databases that group products or services that are most likely to be purchased together (p. 149)
Market-information management - obtaining, managing, and using market information to improve business decision-making and the performance of marketing activities (p. 7)
Marketing - the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives (p. 4)
Marketing concept - the focus on the needs of customers during the planning, production, distribution, and promotion of a product or service (p. 15)
Marketing-information system (MKIS) - collects data and provides meaningful information (p. 138)
Marketing mix - the blending of four marketing elements-product, distribution, price, and promotion (p. 11)
Marketing research - the systematic and objective process of generating data for marketing decisions (p. 142)
Marketing strategy - a company's plan that identifies how it will use marketing to achieve its goals (p. 11)
Market-of-one strategy - serving customers on a personalized basis through online communication and in the product-development process (p. 251)
Market segment - a group of individuals within a larger market who share one of more important characteristics resulting in similar purchasing needs and behaviors (p. 163)
Market segmentation - data base that helps to identify common characteristics of customers who are likely to react to similar marketing strategies (p. 148)
Mass customization - a process of large-volume production that offers specific design choices for customers (p. 70)
Mass production - an assembly process whereby a large number of identical products are produced (p. 68)
Multichannel strategy - business that traditionally used stores or catalogs and have added e-commerce (p. 32)
Multimedia - programs that are used to create interactive content (p. 102)

Needs - things that are required for people to live (p. 170)
Needs and benefits segmentation - divides a market based on the primary reasons that customers make a purchase or the value they receive from the use of the product (p. 164)
Netiquette - proper etiquette over networks (p. 116)
New-to-the-company products - products offered for the first time by a company but are familiar to consumers (p. 194)
New-to-the-world products - products offered for the first time and have never been seen by consumers (p. 194)

Online-purchasing strategy - focuses on increasing sales by providing customers the convenience of finding information and making purchases over the Internet (p. 243)
Open standards - basic sets of instructions that are not owned by a single company (p. 89)
Operations - ongoing activities of a business (p. 70)
Organizing - concerned with determining how the business' work can be effectively accomplished (p. 61)

Panel - a collection of individuals who have volunteered to participate in surveys (p. 143)
Patents - provides exclusive use of inventions (p. 202)
Payroll records - tracks the wages and benefits paid to each full-time and part-time employee (p. 74)
Permission-based marketing - allows businesses to target only customers who have expressed an interest (p. 121)
Personalization - web site that uses information collected from the customer to provide content that is specific to the individual (p. 38)
Personal web site - an entrepreneur's site that can promote products (p. 288)
Physical-distribution activities - involve product handling (p. 219)
Physical products - products sold over the Internet that are the same as those found in any store (p. 40)
Place utility - products and services must be available at a convenient location for customer satisfaction (p. 17)
Planning - involves analyzing information and making decisions about what needs to be done (p. 61)
Plug-in - program that can be integrated into a browser to play media files (p. 102)
Point-of-sale scanners - data collection approach where every time a sales associate scans a product bar code, it records the sale along with associated data such as other products sold (p. 140)
Pop-up ads - automatically load and display content as a web site is brought up (p. 274)
Portal - web site "windows' to online content that allows individuals to find a variety of online content on its and other sites (p. 38)
Pricing - establishing and communicating the value of products and services to prospective customers (p. 7)
Pricing strategy - businesses that focus on gaining market share by selling at low prices or at prices that fluctuate with market demand (p. 253)
Private enterprise economy - recognizes that both consumers and businesses should have the freedom to make individual and independent decisions about what is produced and what is purchased (p. 56)
Producers - like manufacturers, producers are businesses that convert raw materials into consumable products (p. 9)
Product - all of the tangible and intangible attributes that customers receive when they make a purchase (p. 189)
Production - all of the activities involved in creating products for sale (p. 68)
Product/service management - designing, developing, maintaining, improving, and acquiring products and services so they meet consumer needs (p. 6)
Product usage - identifies the frequency and quantity of use of a category of products (p. 163)
Promotion - communicating information about products and services to prospective customers through advertising and other promotional methods to encourage them to buy (p. 7)
Promotional mix - includes advertising, personal selling, sales promotions, and hypermedia (p. 265)
Psychographics - refers to people's interest, activities, lifestyles, and values (p. 163)

Qualitative research - involves collecting data in an open-ended form (p. 143)
Quantitative research - controls possible answers and allows for statistical analysis of data (p. 143)

Rational decisions - decisions based on facts and logic (p. 166)
Receipt and payment records - tracks everything a business buys and sells (p. 74)
Recency, frequency, and monetary (RFM) measures - customers are more valuable if they have made a large number of purchases in the recent past for a high-dollar value (p. 151)
Relationship sites - web sites designed to bring customers back over and over again (p. 120)
Retailers - accumulate manufactured products and sell them to final customers (p. 218)
Reverse auction - businesses bid against each other for customer orders (p. 33)

Sample - subgroup of a larger population (p. 143)
Search engines - examine databases for requested information and then provide links to that information (p. 269)
Secondary research - data that already exists (p. 145)
Secure containers - holds content that can be opened only with electronic keys sent to purchasers of the information (p. 205)
Selling - communicating directly with prospective customers to assess and satisfy their needs (p. 7)
Service businesses - businesses that do not provide tangible products (p. 9)
Services - activities of value performed for the benefit of a consumer or a business that do not result in the ownership of anything tangible (pp. 68, 190)
Service strategy - seeks to gain competitive advantage by reducing the cost, improving the quality, and increasing the speed of services (p. 252)
Shopping cart - online order form (p. 39)
Shopping mall site - promote products of a number of competing businesses in a merchandise category (p. 288)
Shopping portals - allow consumers to find and purchase products on line (p. 38)
Skyscrapers - tall and narrow banner ads (p. 273)
Spam - unwanted e-mail sent to a large number of receivers (p. 122)
Specialized portals - allow individuals to find content in more narrowly defined areas (p. 38)
Sponsorship - integrates a company's brand into the editorial content of a web page (p. 269)
Standardized advertising - the (pp. 126, 190)
Standardized product - products that can be sold the same way throughout the world (p. 5)
Strategy - brings together multiple media to reach desired goals (p. 266)
Streaming - allows a large file to be broken into small sections that are fed to the user's browser (p. 102)
Supply chain - the flow or products, resources, and information through all organizations involved in producing and marketing a company's products (p. 229)

Target market - a specific group of consumers that have similar wants and needs (p. 11)
Telecommute - distance workers who work from their homes using computers and Internet access to the business (p. 64)
Thumbnail - rough sketch of a web site design that shows each page and how the pages will link together (p. 127)
Time utility - products must be available at a convenient time for customer satisfaction (pp. 16, 17)
Top-level domain - distinguishes the type of web site (p. 91)
Top of the search - sites that are listed at the beginning of the search results (p. 269)
Tracking software - allows information obtained from a web site to be monitored, following the trail of the information from computer to computer (p. 205)
Trademark - words, names, or symbols that identify ownership of a product and distinguish it from the similar goods of others (p. 202)
Trend analysis - databases that identify differences and trends among groups of customers over a given period of time (p. 149)

Unique audience - unduplicated visitors to a web site (p. 44)
URL - Universal Resource Locator-the web address (p. 90)

Value - business offering that is unique and superior in important ways from similar offerings of other businesses (p. 189)
Value chain - a number of unique functions that work together to create value (p. 248)
Value proposition - the complete offerings of the business, designed to meet customers needs better than other choices (p. 287)
Virtual team - workers who meet and communicate using technology such as online video conferencing rather than fact-to-face contact (p. 64)
Virus-checker software - screens incoming files for viruses and other destructive programs (p. 99)

Wants - unfulfilled desires (p. 170)
Web portal - a site designed to act as an access point to content on the Internet (p. 121)
Web server - on what a business's web site resides (p. 292)
Web spiders - collect information from web sites and then "crawl" through the Internet, capturing and returning information to the search engine (p. 269)
Wholesalers - support the distribution of products from manufactures to retailers or other businesses (p. 218)